Waste Management is the collection and disposal of solid
waste. The process may include waste reduction, recycling, reuse,
transformation and conservation of resources. It's aim is to provide an eco-
friendly environment to maintain the vast habitual cycle. The term relates
to the material produced by the human activity, industries etc in the form
of solid, liquid or gaseous substances. Waste Management is carried out with
the different methods that involve the fields of expertize for each with the
view to reduce its effect its impact on environment. Recycle bins and litter
bins are some of the products of the waste management that are very
effective in accumulating the waste for the purpose of recycling.
Management Methods :
Landfills are usually located in the urban areas especially in the open
space, where the layers of solid waste are covered with soil. Landfills are
normally created in the areas where the large amount of waste is generated
and need to be disposed off. The waste or garbage is disposed off in the
large pit dug in the ground. There may be chemicals or unpleasant substances
in the waste that need to be covered properly.
On the other hand it also prevents the breeding of flies and mosquitoes
over the garbage. If the landfill is not designed properly it can unhygienic
and very dangerous too. So at the end of the day the cell is covered by the
3-6 inch thick layer of soil. Although according to the researchers landfill
can be very hazardous as it can contaminate the underground water and soil
and can lead to the air pollution.
In the incineration plants recyclable waste is separated and the remaining
is burnt in the large furnaces. When the process is completed only the ash
is left at the end. During the entire process the some of the ash which is
left is highly concentrated of dangerous toxins. The benefit of the
incineration is that the ash which is left can be used in the construction
of roads. Incineration method is also called as the Thermal treatment. It is
the most practical method of disposing the hazardous waste such as
biological medical waste.
Reduction of Waste :
Source Reduction :
Source reduction is the practice of preventing or reducing the generation
of waste. We can all contribute to the reduction of waste by the reuse of
second hand products, repairing the broken items instead of purchasing the
new products, using paper bags or cotton bags instead of plastic,
encouraging the consumers to use the disposable products.
The process of extracting the value resources from the waste is known as
recycling. Recycling is important as it conserves the resources that are
scarce and reducing at the very fast rate. It is actually a process to
recover the old material or the reuse of the waste. There are number of
methods by which the waste can be recycled or reprocessed. For example the
calorific content of the waste material can be converted into the
electricity. Some of the recyclable products includes wood, vehicles,
plastics, batteries, metal etc.