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Chota Nagpur Dry Deciduous Forests

Chota Nagpur dry deciduous forests are wide spread in the Chota Nagpur Plateau of Eastern India covering Jharkhand, Orissa, Bihar and Chhattisgarh. The region comprises of dry to wet deciduous forests. The area is fully surrounded by the plateaus, rocky hills and verdant valleys. The forests of the Chota Nagpur cover some of the rare and endemic species. The plateau receives the less rainfall that makes the vegetation drier in this region.

Chota Nagpur Dry Deciduous Forests Wilderness :
Chotanagpur is a haunter paradise. It is a home to the last population of the Asiatic elephants. Royal Bengal Tigers, Gaur, Bison, Spotted Deer, Sambhur, Four Horned Antelope and the big cats – leopards are still heard seen in the depth of the jungles. Some of the endangered species found in the area are the Tiger (Panthera tigris), Sloth Bear (Ursus Ursinus), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Black Buck (Antilope cervicapra), Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) and Chinkara (Gazella bennettii).

The Chota Nagpur dry deciduous forests also harbors more than 400 species of birds. Some of the important known species known among them includes florican (Eupodotis indica), Indian Grey Hornbill (Ocyceros birostris), Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) and many more.

Floral Section :
There are some species of plants in the jungles of the Chota Nagpur Plateau which are not found anywhere else in the world. For example Cycad (Cycas beddomei) is a critically endangered specie. Large area of the Chota Nagpur are covered with different species of teak forests, Sal forests, and bamboo grasslands and mangrove forests. Major species of the Teak found in this area includes Tectona grandis, Shorea robusta, Anogeissus latifolia, Terminalia alata and so on.

Tribal groups inhabited in the Chotanagpur forests :
Munda, Oraon, Ho and Santhal are the major tribal groups, which are inhabited in the forest areas of the Chotanagpur Plateau. They are known for the simplicity and ignorance toward the outer world. They make their small huts deep inside the jungles. Their huts are made of mud and kuchha roofs which lack windows. These people are dependent on bird flesh, rice, animals and fruits for the food.

They love consuming Haria after the food, which is a local beer made of rice. These indigenous people are seen using the groves of the Sal tree as Sarnas or place of worship. They have their fairs and festivals celebrated only among them. Some of them are Sarhul, Karam, Tasu Parab, Hal Punhya, Rohin and many more.

Major threats to the Chota Nagpur Forests :
Like many other eco regions over grazing has severely affected the forests of the Chota Nagpur region. However the large areas of the forests are being mined for the iron ore and coal, and used for the hydro electric projects that posses the serious threats to the habitat of the wilds especially the endangered species in the forests. Than the major portion of the natural forests in this eco region have been cleared.

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